Scale-dependent landscape-biodiversity relationships shape multi-taxa diversity in an oil palm monoculture under restoration


Enhancing biodiversity in monoculture-dominated landscapes is a pressing restoration challenge. Tree islands can enhance biodiversity locally, but the role of scale-dependent processes on local biodiversity remains unclear. Using a multi-scale approach, we explored how scale-dependent processes influence the diversity of seven taxa (woody plants, understory arthropods, birds, herbaceous plants and soil bacteria, fauna, and fungi) within 52 experimental tree islands embedded in an oil palm landscape. We show that local, metacommunity (between islands), and landscape properties shaped above- and below-ground taxa diversity, with the stronger effects on above-ground taxa. The spatial extent that best-predicted diversity ranged from 150 m for woody plants to 700 m for understory arthropods with below-ground taxa responding at large spatial extents. Our results underscore the need for multi-scale approaches to restoration. Additionally, our findings contribute to understanding the complex processes shaping multi-taxa diversity and offer insights for targeted conservation and restoration strategies.

In bioRxiv